Germ Cell Tumors of the Ovary
GERM CELL TUMORS OF THE OVARY
TERATOMA – up to 90% of germ cell tumors of the ovary. Contains all three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm). The immature teratoma is very aggressive and malignant.
DYSGERMINOMA – is the most common type of malignant germ cell ovarian tumor, usually occurring in adolescence and early life. Is analogous to the male seminoma.
YOLK SAC TUMOR – produces a-fetoprotein
CHORIOCARCINOMA – is the same as the testicular version of the germ cell tumor, causes an increase in hCG.
NON-GERM CELL TUMORS OF THE OVARY
SEROUS CYSTADENOMA – is benign, comprises 20% of ovarian tumors and is frequently bilateral. Is lined with fallopian tube-like epithelium.
SEROUS CYSTADENOCARCINOMA – comprises 50% of ovarian tumors, is frequently bilateral and is malignant.
MUCINOUS CYSTADENOMA – is benign, and is a multilocular cyst lined by mucus-secreting epithelium.
MUCINOUS CYSTADENOCARCINOMA – is malignant, with intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material from ovarian or appendiceal tumor.
BRENNER TUMOR – is a benign tumor resembling bladder epithelium.
OVARIAN FIBROMA – contains bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts. “Meig’s syndrome” is a triad of ovarian fibroma, ascites, and hydrothorax.
GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR – secretes estrogen causing precocious puberty in children, while in adults it can cause endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma. Contains “Call-Exner bodies”, which are small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretions.