The Types of Arthritis
Types of Arthritis:
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis that is caused by the wear and tear of joints, which leads to the destruction of the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone formation. This leads to the formation of osteophytes, as well as Heberden’s and Bouchard’s nodes.
Heberden’s Nodes – malformations of the distal interphalangeal joints
Bouchard’s Nodes – malformations of the proximal interphalangeal joints
Presentation of Osteoarthritis:
– Pain in weight bearing joints
– Asymmetric involvement
– Pain worse at the end of the day (improves with rest)
Is an autoimmune condition that attacks the synovial joints of the body.
– Pannus formation in joints leads to deformities of the metacarpophalangeal joints and proximal interphalangeal joints.
– Formation of subcutaneous nodules
– Ulnar deviation at the wrist joint
– Seen in females >>> males
Presentation of Rheumatoid Arthritis:
– Stiffness in the morning that improves with use
– Symmetric involvement
– Systemic symptoms are present (fever, fatigue, cardiac conditions, pulmonary conditions)
A condition whereby monosodium urate crystals precipitate and accumulate inside the joints, most commonly seen in the big toe, which is known as “podagra”. Ultimately this is a condition that occurs as a result of purine metabolism disorder.
– Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
– PRPP excess
– Glucose-6-phosphate deficiency
– Diet high in protein
– Alcohol use
– Excess coffee consumption
– Consumption of dairy products
Diagnosis is based on joint aspiration and finding of negatively birefringent needle-shaped crystals in the aspirate. NSAIDs are best for acute management, while drugs that decrease uric acid in the system will help prevent recurrences.
A condition similar to gout, pseudogout is caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals inside the joint space. The crystals formed are rhomboid-shaped and basophilic. The large joints are most commonly affected.